Blastodermal chimeras were constructed by transferring quail cells to chick blastoderm. Contribution of donor cells to host were histologically analyzed utilizing an in situ cell marker. Of the embryos produced by injection of stage XI-XIII quail cells into stage XI-2 chick blastoderm, more than 50 percent were definite chimeras. The restriction on the spatial arrangement of donor cells was induced by varying the stage of host. Ectodermal chimerism was limited to the head region and no mesodermal chimerism was shown when the quail cells were injected into stage XI-XIII blastoderm. Mesodermal and ectodermal chimerisms were limited to the trunk, not to the head region, when the quail cells were injected into the stage XIV-2 blastoderm. In these chimeras, however, some of the injected quail cells formed ectopic epidermal cysts. Consequently, the stage XIV-2 blastoderm may become intolerant of the injected cells. Our results suggest that it is possible to obtain chimeras that have chimerism limited to a particular germ layer and region by varying the stage of donor cell injection. Injected quail cells contributed to endodermal tissues and primordial germ cells regardless of the injection site. The quail-chick blastodermal chimeras could be useful in the production of a transgenic chicken and in the investigation of immunological tolerance.

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