We have followed the pupal development of the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila melanogaster. At the onset of metamorphosis larval muscles start to histolyze, with the exception of a specific set of thoracic muscles. Myoblasts surround these persisting larval muscles and begin the formation of one group of adult indirect flight muscles, the dorsal longitudinal muscles. We show that the other group of indirect flight muscles, the dorsoventral muscles, develops simultaneously but without the use of larval templates. By morphological criteria and by patterns of specific gene expression, our experiments define events in IFM development.

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