Animal evolution is influenced by the emergence of new cell types, yet our understanding of this process remains elusive. This prompts the need for a broader exploration across diverse research organisms, facilitated by recent breakthroughs, such as gene editing tools and single-cell genomics. Essential to our understanding of cell type evolution is the accurate identification of homologous cells. We delve into the significance of considering developmental ontogeny and potential pitfalls when drawing conclusions about cell type homology. Additionally, we highlight recent discoveries in the study of cell type evolution through the application of single-cell transcriptomics and pinpoint areas ripe for further exploration.

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