Ventricular and atrial cardiac chambers have unique structural and contractile characteristics that underlie their distinct functions. The maintenance of chamber-specific features requires active reinforcement, even in differentiated cardiomyocytes. Previous studies in zebrafish have shown that sustained FGF signaling acts upstream of Nkx factors to maintain ventricular identity, but the rest of this maintenance pathway remains unclear. Here, we show that MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling acts downstream of FGF and upstream of Nkx factors to promote ventricular maintenance. Inhibition of MEK signaling, like inhibition of FGF signaling, results in ectopic atrial gene expression and reduced ventricular gene expression in ventricular cardiomyocytes. FGF and MEK signaling both influence ventricular maintenance over a similar timeframe, when phosphorylated ERK (pERK) is present in the myocardium. However, the role of FGF-MEK activity appears to be context-dependent: some ventricular regions are more sensitive than others to inhibition of FGF-MEK signaling. Additionally, in the atrium, although endogenous pERK does not induce ventricular traits, heightened MEK signaling can provoke ectopic ventricular gene expression. Together, our data reveal chamber-specific roles of MEK-ERK signaling in the maintenance of ventricular and atrial identities.

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