Obesity is linked to reduced fertility in various species, from Drosophila to humans. Considering that obesity is often induced by changes in diet or eating behavior, it remains unclear whether obesity, diet, or both reduce fertility. Here, we show that Drosophila females on a high-sugar diet become rapidly obese and less fertile as a result of increased death of early germline cysts and vitellogenic egg chambers (or follicles). They also have high glycogen, glucose and trehalose levels and develop insulin resistance in their fat bodies (but not ovaries). By contrast, females with adipocyte-specific knockdown of the anti-obesity genes brummer or adipose are obese but have normal fertility. Remarkably, females on a high-sugar diet supplemented with a separate source of water have mostly normal fertility and glucose levels, despite persistent obesity, high glycogen and trehalose levels, and fat body insulin resistance. These findings demonstrate that a high-sugar diet affects specific processes in oogenesis independently of insulin resistance, that high glucose levels correlate with reduced fertility on a high-sugar diet, and that obesity alone does not impair fertility.