The utilization of reduced plant height genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encoding homeologous DELLA proteins, led to the wheat Green Revolution (GR). However, the specific functions of GR genes in yield determination and the underlying regulatory mechanisms remained unknown. Here, we validated that Rht-B1b, as a representative of GR genes, affects plant architecture and yield component traits. Upregulation of Rht-B1b reduced plant height, leaf size and grain weight, but increased tiller number, tiller angle, spike number per unit area, and grain number per spike. Dynamic investigations showed that Rht-B1b increased spike number by improving tillering initiation rather than outgrowth, and enhanced grain number by promoting floret fertility. Rht-B1b reduced plant height by reducing cell size in the internodes, and reduced grain size or weight by decreasing cell number in the pericarp. Transcriptome analyses uncovered that Rht-B1b regulates many homologs of previously reported key genes for given traits and several putative integrators for different traits. These findings specify the pleiotropic functions of Rht-B1b in improving yield and provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant morphogenesis and yield formation.

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