Gametogenesis is an essential event for sexual reproduction in various organisms. Bryophytes employ motile sperm (spermatozoids) as male gametes, which locomote to the egg cells to accomplish fertilization. The spermatozoids of bryophytes harbor distinctive morphological characteristics, including a cell body with a helical shape and two flagella. During spermiogenesis, the shape and cellular contents of the spermatids are dynamically reorganized. However, the reorganization patterns of each organelle remain obscure. In this study, we classified the developmental processes during spermiogenesis in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha according to changes in cellular and nuclear shapes and flagellar development. We then examined the remodeling of microtubules and the reorganization of endomembrane organelles. The results indicated that the state of glutamylation of tubulin changes during formation of the flagella and spline. We also found that the plasma membrane and endomembrane organelles are drastically reorganized in a precisely regulated manner, which involves the functions of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machineries in endocytic and vacuolar transport. These findings are expected to provide useful indices to classify developmental and subcellular processes of spermiogenesis in bryophytes.

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