In the developing subpallium, the fate decision between neurons and glia is driven by expression of Dlx1/2 or Olig1/2, respectively, two sets of transcription factors with a mutually repressive relationship. The mechanism by which Dlx1/2 repress progenitor and oligodendrocyte fate, while promoting transcription of genes needed for differentiation, is not fully understood. We identified a motif within DLX1 that binds RBBP4, a NuRD complex subunit. ChIP-seq studies of genomic occupancy of DLX1 and six different members of the NuRD complex show that DLX1 and NuRD colocalize to putative regulatory elements enriched near other transcription factor genes. Loss of Dlx1/2 leads to dysregulation of genome accessibility at putative regulatory elements near genes repressed by Dlx1/2, including Olig2. Consequently, heterozygosity of Dlx1/2 and Rbbp4 leads to an increase in the production of OLIG2+ cells. These findings highlight the importance of the interplay between transcription factors and chromatin remodelers in regulating cell-fate decisions.

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