Cover: The Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) has become a laboratory model for lizard species studies in developmental biology, evolutionary ecology and physiology. On page 1149, Czarnoleski et al. provide evidence suggesting that changes in cell size are involved in the origin of thermal and sexual differences in adult size for this species of lizard. Intriguingly, some cell types grouped according to their coordinated changes in cell size. Image provided by Petr Jan Juračka and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence.
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Notch2 and Notch3 suppress the proliferation and mediate invasion of trophoblast cell lines
Summary: This study reveals some of the potential roles of Notch2 and Notch3 in migration and invasion in trophoblast cells. The results may help to increase our understanding of the pathology of preeclampsia.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritis effects of tectorigenin
Summary: Tectorigenin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritis effects by inhibiting apoptosis in chondrocytes via the NF-κB P65 pathway.
Apical and basal epitheliomuscular F-actin dynamics during Hydra bud evagination
Summary: Transgenic Lifeact-GFP Hydra polyps provide a powerful system for live imaging of actin dynamics during morphogenesis and development of a simple and ancestral animal model.
Not all cells are equal: effects of temperature and sex on the size of different cell types in the Madagascar ground gecko Paroedura picta
Summary: The cell sizes of Madagascar ground geckos (Paroedura picta) vary according to body size, sex and developmental temperature, and the pattern of these differences depends on the cell type.
Specific expression and function of the Six3 optix in Drosophila serially homologous organs
Summary: The position of the Six3 optix is regulated by the Dpp pathway during wing and haltere development, and controls the size of both serially homologous organs.
The protein phosphatase 4 complex promotes the Notch pathway and wingless transcription
Summary: The protein phosphatase 4 complex promotes Notch signaling and target gene expression during Drosophila wing development.
Genetic deletion of amphiregulin restores the normal skin phenotype in a mouse model of the human skin disease tylosis
Summary: Gain-of-function mutations in RHBDF2 cause tylosis, a skin disease characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. We generated mice carrying the human tylosis disease mutation p.P189L and show that enhanced amphiregulin secretion underlies tylosis.
The Golgi matrix protein giantin is required for normal cilia function in zebrafish
Summary: Morpholino knockdown of Golgb1/giantin leads to a severe cilopathy phenotype twinned with longer, misshapen cilia. Stable mutants have a very mild phenotype, indicative of compensation, but still have longer cilia.
Effects of temperature and UVR on organic matter fluxes and the metabolic activity of Acropora muricata
Summary: This study explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, and on the organic matter release and degradation by the associated bacteria.
Tg(Th-Cre)FI172Gsat (Th-Cre) defines neurons that are required for full hypercapnic and hypoxic reflexes
Summary: DREADD-mediated silencing of Tg(Th-Cre)FI172Gsat-defined neurons in adult mice results in reduced O2 and CO2 breathing reflexes and respiratory rhythm destabilization under hypoxic challenge, resembling Cheyne-Stokes respiration.
Adaptive camouflage: what can be learned from the wetting behaviour of the tropical flat bugs Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus
Summary: The optical properties of some neotropic bark bugs change when wetted. The present work attempts to explain the phenomenon and transfer it to a polymer surface via laser structuring.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
A reporter mouse model for in vivo tracing and in vitro molecular studies of melanocytic lineage cells and their diseases
Summary: A reporter mouse to trace melanocytic lineage cells was generated by breeding existing mouse lines. Methods were also developed to characterize the proliferation and motility of primary mouse melanocytes.
Investigation of protein synthesis in Drosophila larvae using puromycin labelling
Summary: This paper describes a simple approach, using puromycin-labelling of nascent peptides, to assay protein synthesis in response to growth and stress signals in Drosophila larvae.
A framework for quantification and physical modeling of cell mixing applied to oscillator synchronization in vertebrate somitogenesis
Summary: We develop a framework to quantify and model cell mixing independent of a choice of reference frames, and apply this to study oscillator synchronization in the zebrafish segmentation clock.
Manipulation and quantification of microtubule lattice integrity
Summary: In this work, new tools were developed to manipulate and quantitatively measure the lattice structural state of microtubules for three nucleotide states, which were assessed using electron and fluorescence microscopy.
A Year at the Forefront of...
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