Cover: Scanning electron microscopy of elongated and fragmented apical meristem of an Arabidopsis plant with fas5 mutation in the DNA topoisomerase TOP1α. This topoisomerase plays a specific role in plant development and is required for stem cell regulation. On page 832, Kupriyanova et al. uncover a new function for TOP1α connected with response to light signal. They show that mutations in TOP1α lead to constitutive shade avoidance response in long-day plants. This alteration in light sensitivity seems to be one of the key characteristics of TOP1α mutant plants that affect other developmental processes, including stem cell homeostasis. Image provided by Tatiana Ezhova and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence.
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Endogenous AJAP1 associates with the cytoskeleton and attenuates angiogenesis in endothelial cells
Summary: Depletion of AJAP1 in endothelial cells can increase angiogenic-like sprouting and cell migration. In addition, AJAP1 associates with microtubules in these cells.
Surviving murine experimental sepsis affects the function and morphology of the inner ear
Summary: This study shows that a mild sepsis leads to a significant hearing impairment due to apoptosis of different inner ear structures.
Evidence that differentiation-inducing factor-1 controls chemotaxis and cell differentiation, at least in part, via mitochondria in D. discoideum
Summary: DIF-1 regulates Dictyostelium chemotaxis and differentiation. We synthesized DIF-1-BODIPY, a fluorescent DIF-1 derivative. DIF-1-BODIPY localized to mitochondria, suggesting that DIF-1 functions, at least in part, via mitochondria.
Patterning and gastrulation defects caused by the tw18 lethal are due to loss of Ppp2r1a
Summary: The tw18 lethal, a ‘classical’ mutation, affects gastrulation and embryo patterning. This article shows that phosphatase PP2A is dysfunctional in tw18 and essential for Nodal and WNT signaling in the epiblast.
Centrin diversity and basal body patterning across evolution: new insights from Paramecium
Summary: Functional and phylogenetic analyses reveal the existence of five centrin families and show that basal body patterning in Paramecium requires a third centrin present in many eukaryote lineages.
Low extracellular potassium prolongs repolarization and evokes early afterdepolarization in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes
Summary: This is the first study showing the effects of low extracellular potassium on the electrophysiological properties of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived long QT cardiomyocytes at single and multicellular level.
The coordinating role of IQGAP1 in the regulation of local, endosome-specific actin networks
Summary: Super-resolution imaging and multiplexed live-cell analyses indicate the multi-domain scaffold IQGAP1 contributes to a complex regulatory network that coordinates the actin encapsulation and membrane processing of a novel endosomal compartment.
Morphology and cardiac physiology are differentially affected by temperature in developing larvae of the marine fish mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus)
Summary: Acute and chronic temperature exposures affect differentially heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output in mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) during early development.
Dancing attraction: followers of honey bee tremble and waggle dances exhibit similar behaviors
Summary: We show that tremble dance and waggle dance followers exhibit similar orientation and tracking behaviors, suggesting that signal detection via following is a conserved honey bee behavior.
Simultaneous stimulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by feeding in the anterior intestine of the omnivorous GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus
Summary: Simultaneous stimulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by feeding in the anterior intestine of the omnivorous GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.
Prohibitin-induced obesity leads to anovulation and polycystic ovary in mice
Summary: Obesity-related overgrowth of periovarian adipose tissue and elevated estradiol levels cause anovulation and ovarian cyst formation in mice, independent of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism.
Arabidopsis DNA topoisomerase I alpha is required for adaptive response to light and flower development
Summary: This study expands upon the existing knowledge of Arabidopsis DNA topoisomerase gene TOP1α function in plant development and demonstrates its important new role in regulating shade response and flower development.
Fission yeast neddylation ligase Dcn1 facilitates cohesin cleavage and chromosome segregation at anaphase
Summary: The fission yeast neddylation ligase Dcn1 plays a role in chromosome segregation. dcn1-deletion results in activation of the Mad2-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint, and lagging chromosomes at anaphase.
Akt3 is responsible for the survival and proliferation of embryonic stem cells
Summary: We identified that Akt isoform 3, but not Akt1 or Akt2, specifically regulates embryonic stem cell survival and proliferation. Mechanistically, this is achieved partially through controlling the p53 pathway activity.
The role of nitric oxide during embryonic epidermis development of Xenopus laevis
Summary: Embryonic epidermis development is influenced by nitric oxide, where it has been linked to the development of ionocytes, multi-ciliated cells and small secretory cells.
The geometric framework for nutrition reveals interactions between protein and carbohydrate during larval growth in honey bees
Summary: Protein to carbohydrate ratio affects the survival and growth rate of larval worker honey bees in vitro. Protein and carbohydrate content of food interact in complex ways to alter growth rate, development time and survival in worker bound honey bee larvae.
Pias3 is necessary for dorso-ventral patterning and visual response of retinal cones but is not required for rod photoreceptor differentiation
Summary: Loss of Pias3 in mice results in altered dorso-ventral patterning of retinal cone photoreceptors by modulating the expression of a subset of genes, but does not affect rod development.
Senescence gives insights into the morphogenetic evolution of anamniotes
Summary: We report the presence of senescent cells in several transient structures in developing amphibian and teleost fish, suggesting novel mechanisms of morphogenesis that appeared early in vertebrate evolution.
Dietary supplementation of heat-treated Gracilaria and Ulva seaweeds enhanced acute hypoxia tolerance in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)
Summary: The physiological response and survival rate of gilthead sea bream to hypoxia was highly modulated by dietary supplementation of heat-treated seaweed.
Transition zone cells reach G2 phase before initiating elongation in maize root apex
Summary: Meristematic root cells stop cycling in G2 phase before entering the elongation zone. Remarkable changes in the percentage of cells in the cell cycle phases take place in the transition zone, indicating this zone is a boundary between mitotic and elongation cell processes.
Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP2A stimulates migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via the EGFR/Ca2+/calpain/ITGβ4 axis
Summary: LMP2A expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells increases EGFR activation and cytosolic Ca2+, subsequently stimulates calpain-dependent cleavage of ITGβ4 and enhances cell motility.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
Labeling glycans on living cells by a chemoenzymatic glycoengineering approach
Summary: A novel chemoenzymatic glycoengineering method was developed to selectively modify and label surface glycoconjugates in living cells by implementing glycosyltransferases and azido-modified activated sugar analogs.
A Year at the Forefront of...
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