Residential stem cells are critical for adult tissue homeostasis. Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Notch signaling is essential for ISC proliferation and differentiation. In a forward genetic screen to identify players for ISC regulation in a paper by Shi et al. (2021), cells in stum 9-3 mutant clones (green) underwent rapid proliferation and had differentiation defects, generating lots of ISCs (by Notch intracellular domain/NICD in red), mimics that of Notch loss of function. Further characterisations show that 9-3 mutant is a new allele of O-fut1 (O-fucosyltransferase 1), encoding a Notch modification enzyme. Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
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Crosstalk between basal extracellular matrix adhesion and building of apical architecture during morphogenesis
Summary: This work analyses the mechanisms that cells use to coordinate cell shape changes at the apical and basal compartments during morphogenesis.
Regulation of NANOG and SOX2 expression by activin A and a canonical WNT agonist in bovine embryonic stem cells and blastocysts
Summary: Activin A (NANOG) and canonical WNT signaling (NANOG and SOX2) inhibit expression of pluripotency factors in bovine embryonic stem cells; activin A also inhibits formation of cells positive for NANOG and SOX2 in the blastocyst while promoting TE formation.
Vitamin A cycle byproducts explain retinal damage and molecular changes thought to initiate retinal degeneration
Summary: During the vitamin A cycle, byproducts of vitamin A form in the eye. Using a rat model, we show that the byproducts alone can explain several retinal derangements observed in the prodromal phase of human retinal disease. Retarding the formation of these byproducts may address the root cause of the most prevalent retinal diseases.
Clutch may predict growth of hatchling Burmese pythons better than food availability or sex
Summary: Hatchling pythons from an invasive population displayed substantial phenotypic variation in morphometrics, growth rates, and behaviors. This information may be useful for managing populations of cryptic, endangered, and invasive species.
Temperature-induced reorganisation of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda) proteome during the transition to the warm-blooded host
Summary: The study focuses on the processes that determine the survival of parasites in warm-blooded animals and demonstrates the potential for the application of proteomics in veterinary medicine.
Src family kinases inhibit differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells through the Hippo effector YAP1
Summary: Inhibition of Src family kinases leads to a sharp reduction in YAP1 expression and an increase in CDX2 and HNF4α, two regulators of intestinal cell differentiation, while its paralog TAZ appears not to be directly involved.
Identification of a new allele of O-fucosyltransferase 1 involved in Drosophila intestinal stem cell regulation
Summary: A mutant, stum 9-3, affecting the proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) was identified in a forward genetic screen for factors regulating the proliferation and differentiation ISCs. stum 9-3 acts through the Notch signaling pathway. Detailed mapping, rescue experiments and characterization show that stum 9-3 is not a stumble mutant where the p-element is inserted, but a new allele of O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-fut1).
Aneuploidy facilitates dysplastic and tumorigenic phenotypes in the Drosophila gut
Summary: Dysplastic and tumorigenic phenotypes are worsened by aneuploidy induction in adult stem cells in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium.
Interaction between Discs large and Pins/LGN/GPSM2: a comparison across species
Summary: Discs large and GPSM2 interact to drive cell division orientation. In this article the authors investigate the evolutionary history of this interaction and speculate on its importance to development.
The Forest of Biologists
We are excited to announce the launch of The Forest of Biologists, a new biodiversity initiative created with support from the Woodland Trust, aiming to counteract nature loss and safeguard some of the most critically endangered ecosystems for future generations. For every Research Article and Review/Commentary article that is published in JEB (and our sister journals Development, Journal of Cell Science, Disease Models & Mechanisms and Biology Open), a native tree is planted in a forest in the UK.
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