Compromise of the vascular system has important consequences on cognitive abilities and neurodegeneration. The identification of the main molecular signatures present in the blood vessels of human hippocampus could provide the basis to understand and tackle these pathologies. As direct vascular experimentation in hippocampus is problematic, we achieved this information by computationally disaggregating publicly available whole microarrays data of human hippocampal homogenates. Three conditions were analysed: Young adults, Aged, and Aged with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The genes identified were contrasted against two independent data-sets. Here we show that the endothelial cells from the Younger Group appeared in an “activated stage”. In turn, in the Aged Group, the endothelial cells showed a significant loss of response to shear stress, changes in cell adhesion molecules, increased inflammation, brain-insulin resistance, lipidic alterations, and changes in the extracellular matrix. Some specific changes in the MCI Group were also detected. Noticeably, in this study the features arisen from the Aged Group (high tortuosity, increased bifurcations, and smooth muscle proliferation), pose the need for further experimental verification to discern between the occurrence of arteriogenesis and/or vascular remodelling by capillary arterialization.

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